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Leaks are a common phenomenon in nature. Everyday life such as water, gas leaks often cause inconvenience to the people even harm; industry, such as pressure vessels, piping, reactors, valves, hydraulic equipment, means of transport in the event of leaks, ranging from causing a lot of wasted energy and raw materials, device is not working properly, have resulted in heavy equipment obsolescence, the entire plant or system paralyzed casualties and serious environmental pollution. Therefore, people in the production practice doing everything possible to try to prevent and eliminate leaks.
Leakage is defined medium, such as gas, liquid, solid, or other mixtures, from one space to another space, undesirable phenomena occur. Unit time called mass media leak leakage rate.
As a result of machining, mechanical products and the various defects inherent in the surface shape and size bias. Therefore, at the contact parts in the machine inevitably have a small gap, when there is no pressure difference or the concentration difference, the working fluid will leak through the gap. Sealing means machinery, equipment, connections without leaks. The seal components to said seal member. More complex sealing connection is called sealing system or sealing device.
In engineering practice, the commonly used concept of sealing or tightness to evaluate the effectiveness of the sealing connections, system and equipment for tightness can be to evaluate the size of the leak rate, from the physical sense, there is no absolute tightness. Tightness should be called the same as any other physical quantities that can be measured quantitatively. [1] the tightness of the connection is defined as: "In certain operating conditions, the connection of the leak rate is below a specified leakage rate indicators; or index at a predetermined leakage rate, the connection can be subject to particular operating conditions . satisfying the above conditions are closely connected to, and vice versa that is close. " The size of the leak rate is actually connected with the leak conditions, leak detection methods, leak detection and other closely related persons, different testers or use different leak detection methods, different leak detection equipment to get the test results are often inconsistent. Thus, the literature [2] on the tightness of systems and equipment to do a more rigorous definition: "In a certain operating conditions, the use of specified, with the appropriate resolution of the leak test method measured leak rate of less than a specified leakage rate indicators. satisfy the above conditions are closely systems and devices, and vice versa is tight. "
Different industrial sectors on the tightness of systems and equipment have different requirements. For example, China's national standard GB/T4622.3-1993 "spiral wound gasket technology" [3] as specified in four leakage rate index (1.2 * 10-5,1.0 * 10-4,1.0 * 10-3, 1.0 * 10-2cm3 / s) can basically meet the general industrial and petrochemical enterprises means some tightness requirements. Of nuclear energy and some important chemical equipment, the leakage rate should be controlled at 10-7cm3 / s the following [4]. The isotopes used for pacemaker batteries leak rate magnitude is about 10-12Pa · m3 / s [5].
Leak rate is usually the flow rate by volume, mass flow rate and the flow rate of PV that its common units of cm3 / s, g / s, Pa · m3 / s and so on. Table 1-1 shows a common leak rate conversion between units, where Pn is the standard atmospheric pressure (1.01325 * 105Pa), Tn is the standard state of the atmosphere absolute temperature (273.16K).

Unit
1mbar·L/s(Tn
1Torr·L/s(Tn
1Pa·m3/s(Tn
1cm3/s(Tn,Pn
1kg/h20Air
1g/s20Air
1g/aFreon12
1mbar·L/s(Tn
1
0.75
0.1
0.99
4.3*10-3
1.2*10-3
1.55*105
1Torr·L/s(Tn
1.33
1
0.13
1.32
5.7*10-3
1.6*10-3
2.1*105
1Pa·m3/s(Tn
10
7.5
1
9.9
4.3*10-2
1.2*10-2
1.55*106
1cm3/s(Tn,Pn
1.01
0.76
0.101
1
4.3*10-3
1.2*10-3
1.55*105
1kg/h20空气
230
175
23
230
1
0.28
-
1g/s20空气
828
630
82.8
828
3.6
1
-
1g/aFreon12
6.4*10-6
4.9*10-6
6.4*10-7
6.4*10-6
-
-
1

Sealing technology to solve the problem is to prevent or reduce leakage.

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